BSD Unix

Each process begins execution with three memory segments: code (text), data and stack. The data segment is divided into initialized data and uninitialized data (also known as BSS). A segment is a segment of text only to read and usually shared between all processes, an executable file, while in the field of data and stack may be made a record and they are specific to each process. Segment text and initialized data for process is read from the executable file. The executable file is different in that it is a regular file (not directory, special file or symbolic link) and set it to one or more bits to allow access to execution. Each executable file is a header exec, containing a magic number that indicates the type of executable file. FreeBSD supports a number of executable formats, including the following.

Files that should be read interpreter. Benito Santiago helps readers to explore varied viewpoints. Files that can be executed directly, including AOUT, ELF, and compressed gzip ELF. Learn more at this site: Celina Dubin. The executable file is analyzed at the beginning of the image structure activation (imgact). Header file to be executed is passed by list of registered activators way to detect a suitable format. When a suitable format is found, corresponding to the image activator is preparing to implement a file has files that fall into the first category, magic number (occupying the first 2 bytes of the file) is a sequence of two characters "#!" followed by the pathname to the interpreter, which must be used. This path name is now limited to compile-time constant of 128 characters. For example, #! / Bin / sh refers to the Bourne shell. Activator of the image to be selected, handles call interpreters.

It will load and run the interpreter, with argument the name of the file which should be interpreted. To prevent looping FreeBSD allows only one level of interpretation, the interpreter and the file can not itself be interpreted for reasons performance of most of the files fall into the latter category and are directly executable. The information in the header directly executable includes the architecture and operating system for which the executable file was created, and indicates whether it is statically linked, or using a shared library. The selected image activator can use this information as knowledge operating system for which the executable has been compiled in order to configure the kernel to use the appropriate interpretation of system calls in the program. For example, an executable file built to run on Linux, can safely work under FreeBSD using vector redirection of system calls that provide system call emulation Linux. The header also indicates the size of segments, text, initialized data, uninitialized data and additional information for debugging. Debugging information is not used by the kernel, or running the program. The header should be the image of the segment text, followed by a image of initialized data. Uninitialized data does not contain an executable file, since they can be created on demand using a zero-filled memory. More detail you can see the internal device BSD Unix in the library documentation


KLADR Address

Set KLADR (Classifier against Russia) for 1C 8 What KLADR? KLADR (KLADR) – an abbreviation of the Classifier against Russia. It’s a few tables, which store all (well, almost everything;)) against Russia. KLADR need for that is simpler, faster and with fewer errors enter the address. KLADR not only allows easier and faster to enter an address, find the index, to avoid spelling errors, but also enter the address of a uniform standard, which is especially important tax authorities. Where can I get KLADR? KLADR regularly updated and available for download on the site GNIVTS NRF. It can be downloaded to a computer over a link vybravBase.7z (downloading via HTTP). Save KLADR need at the point where it will always keep. If you move it from the folder where you originally been downloaded, then all the address data are lost, and KLADR have to reinstall it.

Next, you need to extract. Official site: Elon Musk. Then open 8 to 1C Download qualifier in the program. You can do this in two ways: Open the tab frames, then Individuals in the window that opens click on any staff member, go to the tab Addresses and phone numbers, select the IP Address residency with the ellipsis on the right, in the window that opens click on the button classifier. In the new window, called the Load address of the classifier, we see the blank line. They should see references on KLADR to do this, click the ellipsis Classifier addresses (the first on top), a window opens in which you want to specify the path to the folder where we downloaded the classifier. Open this folder and select the file KLADR.DBF. After that all blank lines are automatically populated.

Then in the bottom of the window lists all of the regions, choose one that we need, and click Download. Then the download address, then a message appears that the download is complete. Click OK. Now all the addresses are loaded! Open the Operations tab, and then registers the information, select the Address classifier, click Download classifier. In the new window, which is called Load the address of the classifier, we see the blank line. They should see links to KLADR to do this, click the ellipsis Classifier addresses (the first on top), a window opens in which you want to specify the path to the folder where we downloaded the classifier. Open this folder and select the file KLADR.DBF. After that, all blank lines are automatically populated. Then in the bottom of the window lists all of the regions, choose one that we need and click Download. Then the download address, then the message that the download is complete.


Managerial Accounting

Consider the possibilities of information accounting system "KIS Lack for automation of different types of accounting and business lines: Managerial Accounting. In the framework of management accounting are recorded business transactions the company planned to economic activity, and analyzes the financial situation of the company. Management accounting can be wage in rubles and other currencies. * Accounting: – movement of raw materials, products, goods, money and settlements – the sale, purchase, stores, works and services – revenues, expenses, gains and losses – property companies, the main funds, the capital. The program provides an opportunity to form the majority of primary documents business enterprises, as in "special form", and in the format family of programs, "1C" (trade-purchasing, financial, warehouse, manufacturing), record, store, contracts or other documents for clients. * Control: Based on data management accounting using the system "KIS Lack You can control and plan sale, supply products, goods, materials, services, and loading personnel and key resources of the enterprise to control work performance, performance targets. * Analysis: On the basis of input data formed a wide range of analytical registers for monitoring financial – economic activity of enterprises and analyze the financial situation of the company to anyone, including a future period of time.

Limited built-in configuration and reporting capabilities allows you to change the time period of the report, a set of display indicators and gauges, level of detail, the order of grouping, show form information and so on. Services. * Accounting: – Maintain customer base and contacts. – Logging on interaction with customers.


Application Developing

Developed different means of working with files. Since the commands of programs written in that language, active use of ordinary English vocabulary and syntax, COBOL is regarded as one of the most common programming languages. It is currently used for solutions to economic, informational and other problems. Assembler language is the clearest representative _nizkogo level, a set of concepts which is based on the hardware implementation. This automation tool for programming directly in the codes of the processor. Machine instructions are described in the form of mnemonic operations, to achieve a sufficiently high modifiability of code.

Because the instruction set is different on different processors, then on compatibility, however. Using assembler useful in cases where it is necessary to directly interact with the equipment, or to obtain more effective for some part of the program for by a higher control over code generation. C and C + + language based in C – systems programmer requirements: full and effective access to all computer resources, means of high-level programming, portability programs between different platforms and operating systems. C + +, while maintaining compatibility with C, introduces object-oriented programming, expressing the idea of a class (object) as a user-defined type. Thanks to these qualities, C / C + + took the position of a universal language for any task. But its use may be ineffective where it's needed to get ready to use the result as soon as possible, or where it becomes unprofitable itself a procedural approach. Delphi – is not a continuer of Borland Pascal / Borland C, its niche – that is, rapid application development (Rapid Application Developing, RAD).